Bioremediation in Microbiology is defined as the use of organisms such as bacteria, fungi and some other plants to eliminate toxic pollutants from contaminated sites by degradation, transportation and assimilation. Also Bioremediation attack for contaminant such as tars,oil spills and pesticides. The bacterial genera such as Pseudomonas,Achromobacter,Arthrobacter,Flavobacterium, Micrococcus and Nocardia responsible for oil degradation of the environment. These microorganisms break down contaminants by using them as an energy source or co-metabolizing them with an energy source. More specifically, bioremediation involves the production of energy in a redox reaction within microbial cells.
Normally bioremediation is classified as in-situ and ex-situ. In-situ bioremadiation involves traeting the contaminated material at the site and ex-situ involves the removal of contaminated material to be treated elsewhere. However, in situ processes may be limited by the ability to control or manipulate the physical and chemical environment during bioremediation.
Phytoremadiation, bioleaching, landfarming,composting, bioaugmentation and biostimulation are some of the example for bioremadiation.
Phytoremadiation: direct use of green plants and their associated microorganisms to reduce contamination in soil and ground water.
Bioleaching: extraction of specific metals from their ores through the use of living organisms.
Landfarming: deposition of waste in or on the soil to degrade naturally by microbes.
Bioaugmentation: introduction of a group of natural microbial strains or a genetically engineered variant to treat contaminated soil and water.
Biostimulation: addition of nutrients to enhance the growth of native microbes capable of bioremediation. This can be used when the bacteria necessary to degrade the contaminants do not occur naturally at a site or occur at too low of a population to be effective.
The first step of bioremediation program is to develop a conceptual site model (CSM) and this is to evaluate the potential for applying bioremediation at a site. The conceptual site model takes into accountthe nature and extent of contamination and site characteristics such as;
- site hydrogeology, geochemistry and oxidation-reduction conditions
- biodegradation potential
- contaminant fate and transport
- receptor and exposure pathways.
Oil is not only contaminant in the natural environment that can be treated with microorganisms. The release of vast quantities of chemicals such as solvents, insecticides, herbicides,fungicides etc. into environment has created considerable toxicological problems.
Bioremediation provides a good cleanup strategy for some types of pollution, but as you might expect, it will not work for all. For example, bioremediation may not provide a feasible strategy at sites with high concentrations of chemicals that are toxic to most microorganisms. These chemicals include metals such as cadmium or lead, and salts such as sodium chloride.
Summary of "Microbiology-Bioremediation"
Bioremediation in Microbiology is defined as the use of organisms such as bacteria, fungi and some other plants to eliminate toxic pollutants from contaminated sites by degradation, transportation and assimilation. Also Bioremediation attack for contaminant such as tars,oil spills and pesticides. The bacterial genera such as Pseudomonas,Achromobacter,Arthrobacter,Flavobacterium, Micrococcus and Nocardia responsible for oil degradation of […]